אייל מאיר מראי מקום נוספים - גירוש יהודים
- 1 Pausanias 10.17.11
- 2 Strabo 5.2.7
- 3 Martial, Epigrams 4.60
- 4 Martial, Epigrams 12.57.13
- 5 livius 4.30.10-13
- 6 livius 25.1.12
- 7 livius 39.8
- 8 Dio Cassius 57.19.6
- 9 Dio Cassius 58.4.3
- 10 Tacitus, Annals 4.2.1
- 11 Tacitus, Annals 2.87
- 12 Tacitus, Annals 4.2.4
- 13 Tacitus, Annals 4.6
- 14 Tacitus, Annals 4.40
- 15 Suetonius, Tiberius 37.1
- 16 Suetonius, Tiberius 37.2
- 17 Philo, Flaccus 1
Across the middle of the island runs another chain of mountains, but lower in height. The atmosphere here is on the whole heavy and unwholesome. The reason is partly the salt that crystallizes here, partly the oppressive, violent south wind, and partly the fact that, because of the height of the mountains on the side towards Italy, the north winds are prevented, when they blow in summer, from cooling the atmosphere and the ground here. Others say that the cause is Cyrnus, which is separated from Sardinia by no more than eight stades of sea, and is hilly and high all over. So they think that Cyrnus prevents the west wind and the north wind from reaching as far as Sardinia.
על מזג האוויר הגרוע בסרדיניה.
The greater part of Sardo is rugged and not at peace, though much of it has also soil that is blessed with all products — especially with grain. As for cities, there are indeed several, but only Caralis and Sulchi are noteworthy. But the excellence of the places is offset by a serious defect, for in summer the island is unhealthful, particularly in the fruitful districts; and it is precisely these districts that are continually ravaged by those mountaineers who are now called Diagesbes. c
על מזג האוויר הגרוע בסרדיניה.
Martial, Epigrams 4.60
Let us in the summer solstice retire to Ardea and the country about Paestum, and to the tract which burns under the Cleonaean constellation; since Curiatius has condemned the air of Tivoli, carried off as he was to the Styx notwithstanding its much-lauded waters. From no place can you shut out fate: when death comes, Sardinia is in the midst of Tivoli itself.
על מזג האוויר הגרוע בסרדיניה
Martial, Epigrams 12.57.13
Nor does the fanatic rabble of Bellona cease from its clamour, nor the gabbling sailor with his piece of wreck hung over his shoulder; nor the Jew boy, brought up to begging by his mother, nor the blear-eyed huckster of matches. Who can enumerate the various interruptions to sleep at Rome?
על קבצנות של ילד יהודי - ומכאן מצבם הכלכלי הירוד של יהדות רומא.
This disease spread to the men who had been in contact with them; at first it attacked the slaves and agriculturists, then the City was infected. Nor was it only the body that was affected by the pest, the minds of men also became a prey to all kinds of superstitions, mostly foreign ones. Pretended soothsayers went about introducing new modes of sacrificing, and did a profitable trade amongst the victims of superstition, until at last the sight of strange un-Roman modes of propitiating the wrath of the gods in the streets and chapels brought home to the leaders of the commonwealth the public scandal which was being caused. The aediles were instructed to see to it that none but Roman deities were worshipped, nor in any other than the established fashion.
כתוצאה מבצורת נוצרו ברומא משבר בריאותי וגם משבר רוחני, שבא לידי ביטוי באימוץ דתות זרות.
The aediles and commissioners of police were severely reprimanded by the senate for not preventing these abuses, but when they attempted to remove the crowds from the Forum and destroy the altars and other preparations for their rites they narrowly escaped being roughly handled. As the mischief appeared to be too much for the inferior magistrates to deal with, M. Aemilius, the City praetor, was entrusted with the task of delivering the people from these superstitions. He read the resolution of the senate before the Assembly and gave notice that all those who had in their possession any manuals of divination or forms of prayers or sacrificial ritual in writing were to bring all their books and writings to him before the first of April, and no one was to use any strange or foreign form of sacrifice in any public or consecrated place.
מהומות ברומא בכתוצאה מהמלחמה. חלק מהניסיון של הממשל להחזיר את הסדר על כנו היה דרך הריסת מזבחות ציבוריים של פולחנים זרים.
. During the following year the consuls Sp. Postumius Albinus and Q. Marcius Philippus had their attention diverted from the army and the wars, and the administration of provinces, by the necessity of putting down a domestic conspiracy. The provinces were allotted to the praetors as follows: the civic jurisdiction to T. Maenius, the alien to M. Licinius Lucullus, Sardinia to C. Aurelius Scaurus, Sicily to P. Cornelius Sulla, Hither Spain to L. Q. Crispinus, and Further Spain to C. Calpurnius Piso. Both the consuls were charged with the investigation into the secret conspiracies. A low-born Greek went into Etruria first of all, but did not bring with him any of the numerous arts which that most accomplished of all nations has introduced amongst us for the cultivation of mind and body. He was a hedge-priest and wizard, not one of those who imbue men's minds with error by professing to teach their superstitions openly for money, but a hierophant of secret nocturnal mysteries. At first these were divulged to only a few; then they began to spread amongst both men and women, and the attractions of wine and feasting increased the number of his followers. When they were heated with wine and the nightly commingling of men and women, those of tender age with their seniors, had extinguished all sense of modesty, debaucheries of every kind commenced; each had pleasures at hand to satisfy the lust he was most prone to. Nor was the mischief confined to the promiscuous intercourse of men and women; false witness, the forging of seals and testaments, and false informations, all proceeded from the same source, as also poisonings and murders of families where the bodies could not even be found for burial. Many crimes were committed by treachery; most by violence, which was kept secret, because the cries of those who were being violated or murdered could not be heard owing to the noise of drums and cymbals.
הקונסולים מגרשים את כת בקכוס.
Dio Cassius 57.19.6
This Sejanus, now, had shared for a time his father's command of the Pretorians; but when his father had been sent to Egypt and he had obtained sole command over them, he strengthened his authority in many ways, especially by bringing together into a single camp the various cohorts which had been separate and distinct from one another like those of the night-watch. In this way the entire force could receive its orders promptly, and would inspire everybody with fear because all were together in one camp.
Dio Cassius 58.4.3
Hence Tiberius proceeded to attack him in another way; he appointed him consul and termed him Sharer of p197 his Cares, often repeated the phrase "My Sejanus," and published the same by using it in letters addressed to the senate and to the people.
על הידידות בין טיבריוס לסיאנוס
Tacitus, Annals 4.2.1
The power of the prefectship, which had hitherto been moderate, he increased by massing the cohorts,6 dispersed through the capital,7 in one camp
סיאנוס מקבץ למחנה אחד מחוץ לרומא את כל היחידות של המשמר הפרטוריאני, ובכך זוכה לעוצמה גדולה יותר.
Tacitus, Annals 2.87
As the commons protested against the appalling dearness of corn, he fixed a definite price to be paid by the buyer, and himself guaranteed the seller a subsidy of two sesterces the peck. Yet he would not on that score accept the title "Father of his Country," which had indeed been offered previously;99 and he administered a severe reprimand to those who had termed his occupations "divine," and himself "Lord."100 The speaker, consequently, had to walk a strait and slippery road under a prince who feared liberty and detested flattery.
קשיים כלכליים על המעמדות התחתונים בתחילת שלטונו של טיבריוס.
Tacitus, Annals 4.2.4
for Tiberius, far from p7 demurring, was complaisant enough to celebrate "the partner of his toils" not only in conversation but before the Fathers and the people, and to allow his effigies to be honoured, in theatre, in forum, and amid the eagles and altars of the legions
טיבריוס מכנה את סיאנוס "חברו לעמל"
Tacitus, Annals 4.6
The populace, it is true, was harassed by exorbitant food-prices, but in that point no blame attached to the emperor: he spared, indeed, neither expense nor pains in order to neutralize the effects of unfruitful soils or boisterous seas He saw to it that the provinces were not disturbed by fresh impositions and that the incidence of the old was not aggravated by magisterial avarice or cruelty: corporal punishment and the forfeiture of estates were not in vogue.
קשיים כלכליים למעמדות התחתונים של רומא בעת שלטונו של טיבריוס.
Tacitus, Annals 4.40
In reply, Tiberius praised Sejanus' devotion, touched not too heavily on his own services to him, and asked for time, in order, he said, to consider the matter fully and freely. Then he wrote again:— "With other men, the standpoint for their decisions was what was in their own interests: the lot of princes was very different, as their weightiest affairs had to be regulated with an eye upon public opinion. Therefore he did not take refuge in the answer which came most readily to the pen — that Livia could determine for herself whether she ought to marry after Drusus or rest content with her old home, and that she had a mother and grandmother who were more natural advisers. He would deal more openly: and first with regard to Agrippina's enmity, which would blaze out far more fiercely if Livia's marriage divided, as it were, the Caesarian house into two camps. Even as matters stood, there were outbreaks of feminine jealousy, and the feud was unsettling his grandchildren. What then if the strife was accentuated by the proposed union?" — "For, Sejanus," he continued, "you delude yourself, if you imagine that you can keep your present rank, or that the Livia who has been wedded successively to Gaius Caesar and to Drusus will be complaisant enough to grow old at the side of a Roman knight. p73Assuming that I myself consent, do you suppose the position will be tolerated by those who have seen her brother, her father, and our ancestors, in the supreme offices of state? You wish, for your own part, to stop short of the station you hold: but those magistrates and men of distinction who take you by storm and consult you on any and every subject make no secret of their opinion that you have long since transcended the heights of the equestrian order and left the friendships22 of my father far behind; and in their envy of you they censure myself as well. — You make the point that Augustus considered the possibility of bestowing his daughter on a Roman knight. Astonishing, certainly, that, tugged at by every sort of anxiety, and foreseeing an immense accession of dignity to the man whom he should have raised above his peers by such an alliance, his conversation ran on Gaius Proculeius23 and a few others, remarkable for their quietude of life and implicated in none of the business of the state! But, if we are to be moved by the hesitancy of Augustus, how much more cogent the fact that he affianced her to Marcus Agrippa and later to myself! — I have spoken openly, as was due to our friendship; but I shall oppose neither your decisions nor those of Livia. Of the result of my own reflections, and the further ties by which I propose to cement our union, I shall at present forbear to speak. One point only I shall make clear: no station, however exalted, would be unearned by your qualities and your devotion to myself; and when the occasion comes, either in the senate or before the public, I shall not be silent."
טיבריוס רואה בסיאנוס כחבר שלוקח חלק בעוול השלטון לצידו.
Suetonius, Tiberius 37.1
He gave special attention to securing safety from prowling brigands and lawless outbreaks. He stationed garrisons of soldiers nearer together than before throughout Italy, while at Rome he established a camp for the barracks of the praetorian cohorts, which before that time had been quartered in isolated groups in divers lodging houses.
In primis tuendae pacis a grassaturis ac latrociniis seditionumque licentia curam habuit. Stationes militum per Italiam solito frequentiores disposuit. Romae castra constituit, quibus praetorianae cohortes vagae ante id tempus et per hospitia dispersae continerentur.
סיאנוס מקבץ למחנה אחד מחוץ לרומא את כל היחידות של המשמר הפרטוריאני, ובכך זוכה לעוצמה גדולה יותר.
Suetonius, Tiberius 37.2
He took great pains to prevent outbreaks of the populace and punished such as occurred with the utmost severity. When a quarrel in the theatre ended in bloodshed, he banished the leaders of the factions,59 as well as the actors who were the cause of the dissension; and no entreaties of the people could ever induce him to recall them
Populares tumultus et ortos gravissime coercuit et ne orerentur sedulo cavit. Caede in theatro per discordiam admissa capita factionum et histriones, propter quos dissidebatur, relegavit, nec ut revocaret umquam ullis populi precibus potuit evinci.
Philo, Flaccus 1
Flaccus Avillius succeeded Sejanus in his hatred of and hostile designs against the Jewish nation. He was not, indeed, able to injure the whole people by open and direct means as he had been, inasmuch as he had less power for such a purpose, but he inflicted the most intolerable evils on all who came within his reach. Moreover, though in appearance he only attacked a portion of the nation, in point of fact he directed his aims against all whom he could find anywhere, proceeding more by art than by force; for those men who, though of tyrannical natures and dispositions, have not strength enough to accomplish their designs openly, seek to compass them by manoeuvres.
פלאקוס, יורשו של סיאנוס במדיניותו האנטי-יהודית