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קפיצה אל:ניווט, חיפוש

אלכסנדר הגדולהדיאדוכיםהתגבשות הסדר החדשיסודות הממלכה התלמיתיסודות הממלכה הסלווקית

העימות הגדולבין אלים ובני-אדם: פולחן השליט ההלניסטיהענן מן המערבקומפלקס חנוכהסלבוס

מבן-אלהים לאלוה

אלכסנדר בסיווא

Curtius Rufus 4.7.25-31

...as the king drew near, the eldest of the priests called him son, declaring that his father Jupiter gave him that name. Alexander indeed said that he accepted and acknowledged it, forgetful of his human condition.
He then asked whether the rule of the whole world was destined for him by the fates. The prophet, equally disposed to flattery, answered that he would be the ruler of all land...
he added that Alexander would be invincible till he departed to join the gods.
Then, After sacrifice had been offered, gifts were given both to the priests and to the God, and the king's friends also were allowed to consult Jupiter. They asked nothing more then whether the god authorized them to pay divine honors to their king. The prophet replied that this also would be acceptable to Jupiter.

טיכא של אנטיוכיה - העתק שיש רומי לפסל המקורי מברונזה מן המאה השלישית לפנה"ס

In the light of a genuine and entirely sane appraisal, these unquestionably vane responses of the oracle would have brought ridicule upon its trustworthiness, but Fortuna (= Tyche) makes those whom she has forced to have confidence in herself alone more eager as a rule for glory than big enough to have room for it. Accordingly, Alexander not only allowed himself to be called the son of Jupiter, but even ordered it... And the Macedonians, accustomed, it is true, to the rule of a king, but living in the shadow of a greater freedom than the other people, opposed his claim to immortality more stubbornly than was expedient either for themselves or for their king.

  • עלייתה של טיכה (Tyche)
  • מדרג החירות: רפובליקא או דמוקרטיא > מלוכה > מלוכה אֱלֹהית

פרשת ההשתחוות (proskynesis)

Arrian, Anabasis 4.10.5-7:

As to Kallisthenes’ opposition to Alexander regarding proskynesis, the following story is also prevalent:
It had been agreed between Alexander and the sophists and the most illustrious of the Persians and Medes at his court that mention of this topic should be introduced at a wine-party. Anaxarchos began the subject, saying that it would be far more just to reckon Alexander a God than Dionysos and Herakles, not so much because of the magnitude and nature of Alexander’s achievements, but also because Dionysos was a Theban… and Herakles an Argive… but that Macedonians in their turn would be more justified in paying the respect of divine honors to their own king.
In any case there can be no doubt that when Alexander had departed from men, they would honor him as a god. How much more just, then, that they should give him his due in life rather than when he was dead and the honor would profit him nothing…

מלך ישראל יהוא משתחווה לפני שלמנאסר השלישי מלך אשור

קליסתנס מתנגד בנימוקים הבאים:

  • יש כיבודים לאלים וכיבודים לבני-אדם, ואסור לבלבל
  • האלים יכעסו על אלכסנדר כמו שהוא היה כועס על מי שהיה מתימר למלכות
  • אלכסנדר הוא מקדוני ובן-תרבות יוון, לא פרסי שצריך להשתחוות לו (דת או פוליטיקא?)
  • אפילו דיונסוס והרקלס עברו האלהה רק אחרי מותם
  • האם לאחר חזרתו ליוון ידרוש אלכסנדר מהיוונים והמקדונים, החופשיים שבאנשים, להשתחוות לו כאל?

אל בערוב ימיו

פסל בדמותו של אלכסנדר - מוזיאון לארכיאולוגיה באיסטנבול

Hypereides, Against Demosthenes 31 (Hypereides, Demosthenes)

When you thought that the Areopagus would report those who had the gold you became hostile and created a disturbance in the city so as to obstruct the inquiry. But when the Areopagus postponed its statement on the grounds that it had not yet discovered the truth, you conceded in the Assembly that Alexander might be the son of Zeus and Poseidon too if he wished . . . wished . . . to set up a statue of Alexander, the king and god invincible . . . Olympias . . . announced to the people . . .

Deinarchos, Against Demosthenes 1.94: (Deinarchos)

I am not citing other instances of his continual change of policy or of the pernicious speeches which he has consistently made. At one time he made a proposal forbidding anyone to believe in any but the accepted gods and at another said that the people must not question the grant of divine honors to Alexander

Athenaios, Deipnosophistai 6.251b: Athenaios
"...the Athenians... fined Demades ten talents for proposing a decree naming Alexander a god..."

אנטיגונוס וסקפסיס

כתובת יוונית משנת 311 לפ' שנמצאה בסקפסיס (אסיא הקטנה, בסמיכות לטרויא).

Since (Antigonos) has also sent news of the agreement concluded by him with Kassandros, Ptolemy and Lysimachos, copies of the oath, and news of what has been done concerning the peace and the autonomy of the Greeks; be it resolved by the people:
since Antigonos has been responsible for great benefits to the city and the other Greeks, to praise Antigonos and to rejoice with him in what has been accomplished; let the city also rejoice with the other Greeks that they shall live in peace henceforward enjoying freedom and autonomy; and so that Antigonos may receive honors worthy of his achievements and the people should be seen to be returning thanks for the benefits it has received, let it:

  1. mark off a sacred enclosure (temenos) for him,
  2. build an altar and
  3. set up a cult statue as beautiful as possible, and
  4. let the sacrifice, the competition, the wearing of the wreath and the rest of the festival be celebrated every year in his honor as they were before…

הכתובת מגיעה בעקבות ההסכם של 311

  • מדוע להפוך מישהו לאל?
  • איך מזהים אל?
  • מה היה כבר קודם?

ההמנון לכבוד דמטריוס

הושר בשנת 291, לרגל חזרתו של דמטריוס לאתונא ותודה על כינון מחדש של המשטר הדמוקרטי

Athenaios, Deipnosophitai 6.253b-f: (= Austin 43)

What then is surprising about the fact that the Athenians, the flatterers of flatterers, sang paeans and processional odes in honor of Demetrios himself? For instance Demochares writes in book 21 of his History:

"When Demetrios returned from Leukas and Kerkyra to Athens, the Athenians welcomed him not just with incense, crowns and libations of wine; he was even met by processional choruses and ithyphallic hymns accompanied by song and dance. As they took their places in the crowds they sang and danced, chanting that he was the only true god, that the other gods were asleep or away or did not exist, that he was descended from Poseidon and Aphrodite, that he was surpassingly beautiful and courteous in his kindness to everyone. They would address supplications to him, he says, and would offer him prayers."

So much from Demochares on the flatter of the Athenians. Douris of Samos in book 22 of his Histories quotes the actual ithyphallic hymn:

"How the greatest and dearest fo the Gods have come to the city! For the hour has brought together Demeter and Demetrios. She comes to celebrate the solemn mysteries of her Daughter, while he is here full of joy, as befits the God, fair and laughing. His appearance is majestic, his friends all around him, and he is in their midst as though they were the stars and he the sun. Hail, son of the most powerful God Poseidon and of Aphrodite! For the other Gods are either far away, or they do not have ears, or they do not exist, or do not take any notice of us. But you we can see present here. You are not made of wood or stone. You are real!

And so we pray to you: first bring us peace, dearest one, for you have the power. And then, the Sphinx that rules not only over Thebes but over the whole of Greece, that Aitolian sphinx sitting on a rock like the ancient one, who seizes and carries away all our people, and I have no defense against her (for it is an Aitolian habit to seize the property of neighbors and now even what is far afield). Most of all punish her yourself; if not, find an Oidipous who will either hurl down that sphinx from the rocks or reduce her to ashes."

  • אבר-גבר?
  • מה נכלל בהאלהה?
  • מה חושב דמטריוס?
  • מה חושבים "האתונאים"?
מוקדון ויוון בשנת 200 לפנה"ס

הצו מקאנוֹפּוֹס

כתובת תלת-לשונית מ-4.3.236 לפ', שהוקדשה לכבוד תלמי III "עושה החסד" ומלכתו ברניקה II על ידי אסיפת כהנים שהתאספה לצורך זה בעיר קאנופוס. הכתובת מפארת את תלמי על דאגתו לרווחת מצרים כולה, וביחוד ההישׂגים הגדולים במלחמה הסורית III:

In the reign of Ptolemy son of Ptolemy and Arsinoe, Theoi Adelphoi, in the 9th year, when Apollonides son of Moschion was priest of Alexander and of the Theoi Adelphoi and of the Theoi Euergetai, when Menekratea was basket-bearer of Arsinoe Philadelphos…
Since king Ptolemy son of Ptolemy and Arsinoe, the Brother-Sister Gods, and queen Berenike his sister and wife, the Benefactor Gods (theoi euergetai), constantly confer many great benefactions on the temples throughout the land and increase more and more the honors of the Gods… and the king on a campaign abroad brought back to Egypt the sacred statues that had been taken out of the country by the Persians and restored them to the temples from which they had initially been taken, and he has maintained the country at peace by fighting in its defense against many nations and their rulers, and they have provided good government (eunomia)to all those in the country and to the other subjects of their kingdom, and on one occasion the rise of the river was insufficient… they showed their care… and much foresight and sacrificed a large part of their revenues for the salvation of the population… by importing corn…
With good fortune, be it resolved by the priests in the country to increase the honors which already exist in the temples for king Ptolemy and queen Berenike the Benefactor Gods, and to their parents the Brother-Sister Gods, and to their grandparents the Savior Gods…

אנטיוכוס III והמלכה לאודיקה

כתובת של אנטיוכוס III משנת 193 לפ', שנמצאה בשלושה עותקים שונים, שניים במדי ואחד בפרֻגיא (שרווין-וייט וקוהרט 204):

King Antiochos to Menedemos: greetings. Wishing to increase further the honors of our sister and queen Laodike, and believing this to be most imperative for us, not only because of the affection and care she shows in her life with us, but also because of her piety with regard to the divine (to theion)… in particular it is our decision that just as chief-priests of us are appointed throughout the kingdom, so too chief-priestesses should be established… who shall wear god crowns with her portrait on them, and who shall be inscribed on contracts after the chief-priests of our (ancestors) and of us…


  • מנדמוס: הסטרפ של מדי
  • לאודיקה היתה בכלל בתו של מתרדטס מלך פונטוס
    • מה עניין ה"אחות"?
  • לראשונה: האלהה עצמית של שליט סלווקי בחייו
  • לא פולחן מקומי ביוזמת עיר אחת, אלא מהלך ממרכז הממלכה לכל קצותיה!


אֵוּהֶמֵרוֹס ממֵסֶנֶה על מקור האלים, מתוך דיודורוס 6.1.2-3:

As regards the gods, then, men of ancient times have handed down to later generations two different conceptions: Certain of the gods, they say, are eternal and imperishable, such as the sun and moon and the other stars of the heavens, and the winds as well and whatever else possesses a nature similar to theirs; for of each of these the genesis and duration are from everlasting to everlasting. But the other gods, we are told, were terrestrial beings who attained to immortal honour and fame because of their benefactions to mankind, such as Heracles, Dionysus, Aristaeus, and the others who were like them. Regarding these terrestrial gods many and varying accounts have been handed down by the writers of history and mythology; of the historians, Euhemerus, who composed the Sacred History, has written a special treatise about them, while, of the writers of myths, Homer and Hesiod and Orpheus and the others of their kind have invented rather monstrous stories about the gods

  • חבר של קסנדרוס ועד לתהפוכות הגדולות של עידן הדיאדוכים
  • מורשת אלכסנדר
  • ההבטחה של ליוויה

מושגים לשיעור

מקדש אמון בסיוואטיכה (Tyche)היפרידס (Hypereides)דמוסתנס (Demosthenes)דינארכוס (Deinarchos)אתנאיוס (Athenaios)דמאדס (Demades)דמטריוס I מוקדוןהצו מקאנוֹפּוֹסתלמי III "עושה החסד"ברניקה IIמלחמה הסורית ה-IIIאנטיוכוס IIIאנטיוכוס III הגדוללאודיקה IIIאֵוּהֶמֵרוֹס ממֵסֶנֶה

אלכסנדר הגדולהדיאדוכיםהתגבשות הסדר החדשיסודות הממלכה התלמיתיסודות הממלכה הסלווקית

העימות הגדולבין אלים ובני-אדם: פולחן השליט ההלניסטיהענן מן המערבקומפלקס חנוכהסלבוס