תשע מונותאיזם עבודה מסכמת יונתן רביד

מתוך Amitay.haifa.ac.il
קפיצה אל:ניווט, חיפוש

The Apocryphon of John

האפוקריפון של ג'ון הוא למעשה תיאור התגלותו של האל לג'ון המאזין. טקסט זה של הזרם ה-סתי, מתיישב עם תפיסתם לגבי גירוש האדם מגן עדן. הם האמינו שהגירוש נעשה ע"י אל קנאי ומגלומן, ולא ע"י האל שמעבר לו, במציאות העליונה. לפי אחד הפירושים דמיורג, או ילדבאות כפי שהוא מכונה באפוקריפון של ג'ון, היה בהתחלה מחשבה של סופיה, אחרי שהחליטה לעבר את עצמה, והמחשבה הזאת הפכה אליו. סופיה הייתה הייתה הנחותה מבין 12 אאונים (Aeons), שלהם היה מותר להפרות אך ורק בין שני המינים. מאחר ועיברה את עצמה, היה זה דבר אסור, ולכן נולד לה משהו מוקצה, והוא דמיורג. הדמיורג הוא אנדרוגינוס. מעשה אסור זה של סופיה מביא בהדרגה לאובדן האור. היקום שדמיורג ברא מאופיין בחשכה. האפוקריפון של ג'ון מסביר את בעיית הרשע ביקום בכך שהוא קשור לבריאתו.לדמיורג עצמו נולדו עוד 6 ילדים, שאיתם יצר את העולם החומרי ומשל בשבעת הכוכבים.

A Crisis that Became the World - לידתו של דמיורג

(It happened that the realm (aeon) Wisdom  (Sophia

           (Of conceptual thought (Epinoia,
           Began to think for herself,
                       (She used the thinking (enthymesis
                       (And the foreknowledge (prognosis
                       Of the Invisible Spirit. 

She intended to reveal an image from herself

           To do so without the consent of the Spirit,
                       Who did not approve,
           Without the thoughtful assistance of her masculine counterpart,
                       Who did not approve.

Without the Invisible Spirit’s consent

           Without the knowledge of her partner
                       She brought it into being.

Because she had unconquerable Power Her thought was not unproductive.

           Something imperfect came out of her
           Different in appearance from her.

           Because she had created it without her masculine counterpart
                       She gave rise to a misshapen being unlike herself.

Sophia saw what her desire produced.

           It changed into the form of a dragon with a lion’s head
           And eyes flashing lightning bolts.

She cast him far from her,

           Outside of the realm of the immortal beings
           So that they could not see him.

[She had created him in ignorance]

Sophia surrounded him with a brilliant cloud,

           Put a throne in the center part of the cloud
           So that no one would see it.
          .Except for the Holy Spirit called the Mother of the Living 

She named him Yaldabaoth.

Yaldabaoth is the chief ruler.

           He took great Power (dynamis) from his mother,
                       Left her, and moved away from his birthplace.
           He assumed command,
                       Created realms for himself
           With a brilliant flame that continues to exist even now.


The Fashioning of This World - דמיורג בורא את העולם

(Yadabaoth united with the thoughtlessness (aponoia) within him. He begot ruling authorities (exousia

           Modeling them on the incorruptible realms above. 

The first is Athoth The second is Harmas [called the eye of flame] The third is Kalilaumbri The fourth is Yabel The fifth is Adonaiu [called Sabaoth] The sixth is Cain [called the sun] The seventh is Abel The eighth is Abrisene The ninth is Yobel The tenth is Armupiel The eleventh is Melcheir-adonein The twelfth is Belias

           Who rules over the very depth of Hades.

He made the first seven rulers to reign in the seven spheres of heaven. He made the next five rulers to reign in the five depths of the abyss. He shared a portion of his fire with them,

           But shared none of the power of Light he had received from his mother. 

He is ignorant darkness. When the Light mingled into the darkness

           the darkness shone.

When darkness mixed with the Light,

           the Light diminished,
           .No longer Light nor darkness but dim

This dim ruler has three names:

           Yaldabaoth is the first.
           Saklas is the second.
           Samael is the third.

He is blasphemous through his thoughtlessness. He said “I am God, and there is no God but me!”

           Since he didn’t know where his own Power originated. 

His rulers created seven Authorities for themselves.

           Each of these Authorities created six demons apiece,
           There came to be 365 demons altogether. 

Here are the seven Authorities’ names and physical forms:

           First, Athoth with a sheep’s face
           Second, Eloaios with a donkey’s face
           Third, Astaphaios with a hyena’s face
           Fourth, Yao with the face of a seven headed snake
           Fifth, Sabaoth who has the face of a dragon
           Sixth, Adonin whose face is that of a monkey
           Seventh, Sabbataios with a face of flame and fire.

These are the seven of the week. These Authorities rule the world. Yaldabaoth has many faces.

           More than all that have been listed
           So he can convey any face he wants to the seraphim around him. 

Yaldabaoth shared his fire with his seraphim

           But gave them none of his pure Light
           Although he ruled them by virtue of the power and glory
                       Of the Light had received from his Mother.
          Therefore he called himself “God” and defied his place of origin. 

He united his thought’s sevenfold Powers with the Authorities who accompanied him.

           He spoke and it happened.

He named those sevenfold Powers starting with the highest one:

           Goodness paired with the first: Athoth
           Providence paired with the second: Eloaios
           Divinity paired with the third: Astaphaios
           Lordship paired with the fourth: Yao
           Kingdom paired with the fifth: Sabaoth
           Zeal paired with the sixth: Adonin
           Understanding paired with the seventh: Sabbataios 

Each has its own realm modeled on one of the higher realms.

           And each new name refers to a glory in the heavens
           So that Yaldabaoth’s demons might be destroyed. 

The demons’ own names, given by Yaldabaoth, are mighty names

           But the Powers’ names reflecting the glory above
                       Will bring about the demons’ destruction and remove their Power.
                                   That is why each has two names. 

Yaldabaoth modeled his creation

           On the pattern of the original realms above him
           So that it might be just like the indestructible realms.

           Not that he had ever seen the indestructible ones.
           Rather, the power in him, deriving from his mother,
           made him aware of the pattern of the cosmos above. 

When he gazed upon his creation surrounding him

           He said to his host of demons
           The ones who had come forth out of him:
“I am a jealous God and there is no God but me!” 
           But by doing this he admitted to his demons that there is indeed another God.
           For, if there were no other God, whom would he possibly be jealous of? 

His mother began to move back and forth

           Because she had become aware that she now lacked Light
           For her brightness had dimmed. 
           Since her consort had not approved of her actions, she grew darker

I said “Master, what does it mean ‘she moved back and forth’?” He laughed, saying, “It’s not as Moses said ‘upon the waters.’ Not at all.” When she saw the evil that had taken place and

           The theft of light that her son had committed

She repented. In the darkness of ignorance

           She began to forget.
           She began to be ashamed.
                       But she could not yet return above
                       Yet she began to move.

And so she moved back and forth.

[The arrogant one removed Power from his mother
           For he was ignorant
           He thought no one existed except for his mother.

He saw the host of demons he had created

           And he elevated himself above them.

But when the mother realized that that miscarriage

           Was so imperfect
           She came to realize that her consort had not approved.

She repented and wept furiously. All of the divine realms (pleroma) heard her repentant prayer They sought blessing for her from the Invisible Virgin Spirit.

           The Spirit consented.
           He poured the Holy Spirit over her
                       Brought forth from the whole full realm. 

Her consort did not come down to her on his own, but he came through the whole full realm to restore her to her original condition. She was elevated above her son,

         But she was not restored to her own original realm.

She would remain in the ninth sphere until she was fully restored

Humanity Begins - תחילתה של האנושות

Then came a voice from the highest realms saying

           “!The Man exists! And the Son of Man”

Yaldabaoth, chief ruler, heard it

           He thought it came from his mother
           He did not know the true source of the voice:
                       The Holy Mother-Father
                       Perfect Providence
                       Image of the Invisible
                                   Father of Everything
                                   In whom everything has come to be.

The First Man

           .This is the one who appeared to them]
           [He appeared in the form of a human being 

All of the realm of the chief ruler quaked!

           The foundations of the abyss moved! 

He illuminated the waters above the world of matter,

           His image shown in those waters. 

All the demons and the first ruler together gazed up

           Toward the underside of the newly shining waters.

Through that light they saw the Image in the waters.


Yaldabaoth said to his subordinate demons:

           “Let’s create a man according to the image of God
                       And our own likeness
            So that his image will illuminate us.” 

Each one through another’s Power created aspects of the man;

           Each added a characteristic corresponding to the psychic factors

They had seen in the Image above them. They made a creature of substance In the likeness of that perfect First Man "And they said, “Let us call him Adam, so that his name will give us the power of light

האדם הראשון, שהוא חלק מהבריאה ע"י דמיורג, נותר חסר חיים, עד שדמיורג נושם לתוכו חלק מהרוח שקיבל מאימו סופיה.

Construction of the Human Body - בניית גוף האדם

The seven Powers began to work:
. Goodness made a psyche of bone
Providence made a psyche of sinew
Divinity made a psyche of flesh
Lordship made a psyche of marrow
Kingdom made a psyche of blood
Zeal made a psyche of skin
Understanding made a psyche of hair

The host of demons took these substances from the Powers to create the limbs and the body itself. They put the parts together and coordinated them.

The first ones began by making the head: Abron created his head; Meniggesstroeth created the brain; Asterechme the right eye; Thaspomocha, the left eye; Ieronumos, the right ear; Bissoum, the left ear; Akioreim, the nose; Banenrphroum, the lips; Amen, the front teeth; Ibikan, the molars; Basiliademe, the tonsils; Achcha, the uvula; Adaban, the neck; Chaaman, the neckbones; Dearcho, the throat; Tebar, the shoulder; Mniarcon, the elbow; Abitrion, the right arm; Evanthen, the left arm; Krys, the right hand; Beluai, the left hand; Treneu, the fingers of the right hand; Balbel, the fingers of the left hand; Kriman, fingernails; Astrops, the right breast; Barroph, the left breast; Baoum, the right shoulder joint; Ararim, the left shoulder joint; Areche, the belly; Phthave, the navel; Senaphim, the abdomen; Arachethopi, the right ribs; Zabedo, the left ribs; Barias, the right hip; Phnouth the left hip; Abenlenarchei, the marrow; Chnoumeninorin, the skeleton; Gesole, the stomach; Agromauna, the heart; Bano, the lungs; Sostrapal, the liver; Anesimalar, the spleen; Thopithro, the intestines; Biblo, the kidneys; Roeror, the sinews; Taphreo, the spine; Ipouspoboba, the veins; Bineborin, the arteries; Atoimenpsephei, respiration; Entholleia, the flesh; Bedouk, the right buttock; Arabeei, the penis; Eilo, the testicles; Sorma, the genitals; Gormakaiochlabar, the right thigh; Nebrith, the left thigh; Pserem, the kidneys of the right leg; Asaklas, the left kidney; Ormaoth, the right leg; Emenun, the left leg; Knyx, the right shin; Tupelon, the left shin; Achiel, the right knee; Phnene, the left knee; Phiouthrom, the right foot; Boabel, its toes; Trachoun, the left foot; Phikna, its toes; Miamai, the toenails.

And those who were appointed over all of these are:
Zathoth,
Armas,
Kalila,
Iabel,
Sabaoth,
Cain,
Abel.

The energizing powers in the limbs were divided among:
the head made by Diolimodraza; the neck by Yammeax; the right shoulder Yakouib; the left shoulder Verton; the right hand Oudidi; the left Arbao; the fingers of the right hand Lampno; the fingers of the left hand Leekaphar; the right breast Barbar; the left breast Imae; the chest Pisandriaptes; the right shoulder joint Koade; the left shoulder joint Odeor; the right ribs Asphixix; the left ribs Synogchouta; the abdomen Arouph; the womb Sabalo; the right thigh Charcharb; the left thigh Chthaon; the genitals Bathinoth; the right leg Choux; the left leg Charcha; the right shin Aroer; the left shin Toechtha; the right knee Aol; the left knee Charaner; the right foot Bastan; its toes Archentechtha; the left foot Marephnounth; its toes Abrana.

Seven govern the whole body:
Michael,
Ouriel,
Asmenedas,
Saphasatoel,
Aarmouriam,
Richram,
Amiorps.

The one who governs perceptions: Archendekta
The one who governs reception: Deitharbathas
The one who governs imagination: Oummaa
The one who governs integration: Aachiaram
The one who governs impulse: Riaramnacho.


There is a fourfold source of the bodily demons:
Hot, Cold, Dry, Wet.

[Matter is the mother of them all.]

Ruler of hot: Phloxopha
Ruler of cold: Oroorrothos
Ruler of dry: Erimacho
Ruler of wet: Athuro.

Their mother stands among them: Onorthochrasaei
She is unlimited
She mixes with all of them.
She is matter
And they are nourished by her.

The four chief demons are:
Ephememphi, associated with pleasure,
Yoko, associated with desire,
Nenentophni, associated with distress,
Blaomen, associated with fear.
Their mother is Esthesis-Zouch-Epi-Ptoe.

Out from these four demons come passions:
From distress arises
Envy, jealousy, grief, vexation,
Discord, cruelty, worry, mourning.

From pleasure comes much evil
And unmerited pride,
And so forth.

From desire comes
Anger, fury, bitterness, outrage, dissatisfaction
And so forth.

From fear emerges
Horror, flattery, suffering, and shame.

[Their thought and truth is Anayo, the ruler of the material soul.
It belongs with the seven senses, Esthesis-Zouch-Epi-Ptoe.]

This is the total number of the demons: 365
They worked together to complete, part by part, the psychical and the material body.

There are even more of them in charge of other passions
That I didn’t tell you about.
If you want to know about them
You will find the information in the Book of Zoroaster.

All of Yaldabaoth’s servants and his demons
Worked to finish the psychic body.
For a very long time it lay inanimate
It did not move.

Yaldabaoth’s mother wanted to take back the Power
She had turned over to the Chief Ruler.
She earnestly asked the most merciful,
The Mother-Father of everything,
For help


Plotinus, The Second Ennead - פלוטינוס מגנה את הגנוסטים על האופן בו הם תופסים את דמיורג

Then, they shape an image of that image somewhere below — through the medium of Matter or of Materiality or whatever else of many names they choose to give it in their frequent change of terms, invented to darken their doctrine — and so they bring into being what they call the Creator or Demiurge, then this lower is severed from his Mother [Sophia] and becomes the author of the Kosmos down to the latest of the succession of images constituting it


קטע מהאפוקריפון של ג'ון בו הדמיורג מכריז על עצמו כבורא היחיד של העולם

Now the archon (ruler) who is weak has three names. The first name is Yaltabaoth, the second is Saklas (“fool”), and the third is Samael. And he is impious in his arrogance which is in him. For he said, ‘I am God and there is no other God beside me’, for he is ignorant of his strength, the place from which he had come


Pistis Sophia - דמיורג שקע בכאוס ומענה נשמות רעות

Say unto them, ' Renounce robbery, that ye may be worthy of the mysteries of light, and saved from laldabaoth. " Say unto them, ' Renounce slandering, that ye may be worthy of the mysteries of light, and saved from the rivers of fire of that lion-faced.' " Say unto them, ' Renounce quarrelling and broiling, that ye may be worthy of the mysteries of light, and saved from the seething rivers of laldabaoth . "Say unto them, ' Renounce all ignorance, that ye may be worthy of the mysteries of light, and saved from the workmen of laldabaoth and the fires of his seas. " Say unto them, ' Renounce villainy, that ye may be worthy of the mysteries of light, and saved from all the demons of laldabaoth and all his judgments. " Say unto them, ' Renounce sloth, that ye may be worthy of the mysteries of light, and saved from the seething seas of pitch of laldabaoth . " Say unto them, ' Renounce adultery, that ye may be worthy of the mysteries of the kingdom of light, and saved from the seas of sulphur and pitch of the lion-faced'

Ophite Sect

האופיטים היו זרם גנוסטי שדמה מאוד בהשקפותיו לסתיים, גם לגבי הדמיורג, רק שהם הדגישו את הנחש מגן העדן כדמות מרכזית באמונה שלהם. לפי אחת הגרסאות, הנחש הוא צאצא של דמיורג.

שאלת המחקר

מהי דמותו של דמיורג, בורא העולם הגנוסטי?

קישורים

דמיורג ואימו סופיה

ששת האיניאדות של פלוטינוס

טימאוס של אפלטון

האפוקריפון של ג'ון (מובא מהאתר של ספריית נאג חאמאדי. ספריית נאג חאמאדי היא אוסף של כתבים גנוסטיים).

פיסטיס סופיה